Spectra from accretion disks of compact stellar remnants
We are computing spectral models of gaseous accretion disks in various environments. In essence, our method assumes a radial disk structure (e.g. an α-disk) and we compute in detail the vertical disk structure. The code is an offspring of our non-LTE stellar atmosphere modeling package. In addition, we are developing radiation transfer codes to model the spectra of accretion disk winds
Cataclysmic Variables and Symbiotic Stars
We are investigating disks around WD accretors in close binary systems (CVs). CVs are the origin of nova and dwarf-nova phenomena. Particularly interesting are AM CVn systems, which have (almost) pure helium disks. Determining their metal abundances allows us to conclude on the nature of the donor star, which could be a helium white dwarf. Such white-dwarf binaries are of general interest because they are potential SN Ia progenitors and primary targets for future gravitational wave detectors.
We also model the temporal evolution of dwarf-nova outbursts of CVs, which are thermal instabilities in the disk, resulting in a strong increase of the mass-accretion rate.
Many CV spectra exhibit prominent P Cygni line profiles in the UV, indicative for strong mass-loss away from the disk. We are modeling the disk-wind spectra in order to conclude on mass-loss rates, wind structure and wind-acceleration processes. Depending on the mass-loss rate, the evolution of the binary system can be significantly affected.
Like CVs, Symbiotic Stars also consist of WD accretors in binaries, however, with long orbital periods. In contrast to CVs, mass-transfer does not occur by Roche-lobe overflow but through accretion of wind-matter from the red-giant companion. Our disk plus WD atmosphere models can be used to compute the spectral energy distribution of such systems.
Single white dwarfs
Dust- and even gas-debris disks were discovered around numerous single WDs. They can be interpreted as remains of planetary systems of the progenitor stars. We are working on analyses of optical und UV spectra of gaseous disks. Their composition possibly reflects that of tidally disrupted asteroids, allowing us to study in detail the chemistry of extrasolar planetary systems.
Low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs)
X-ray binaries contain accreting NSs of black holes. The donor stars can be either low- or high-mass stars. The former (= LMXBs) can be rather compact, i.e., their orbital periods are less than 80 minutes. In these systems the donor star must be a stripped WD such that the disk is free of hydrogen and helium. C and O rich matter from the former WD interior is being transferred, giving us the unique possibility to study the interior WD composition. We analyse UV and optical spectra of such systems.
Some of the matter that is ejected in core-collapse supernova explosions cannot escape the gravitational well of the neutron star or black hole, falls back towards the compact remnant and can build up an accretion disk. The existence of such disks is debated. Their chemistry must exotic, being primarily built of iron or iron-rich silicon-burning ash. We compute the spectra of such disks which can be compared to observations of potential candidates (e.g., NSs with observed IR excess). The models can also be used to infer the maximum size of such disks around particular systems.
More details on our work on accretion disks can be found on the Accretion Disks Project web pages.